The Enlightenment, followed by the American, French, and Industrial revolutions, provoked far-reaching political, economic, social and religious changes in the 19th century, which dominated events in the
20th, influencing the course of the 21st century. The papacy found its authority questioned. The present volume of text and documents focuses on the papal response to the modern world. Included in its
pages is the Vatican's response to liberalism, socialism and communism as well as historical events from the French Revolution to the Cold War. It also examines papal neutrality during the World Wars, its
attitudes towards racism, and its response to the Holocaust.